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Paul Kinninmont

Paul Kinninmont


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Paul specialises in international arbitration – commercial and investment, institutional and ad hoc –  as well as related injunctive relief and award enforcement. Paul’s arbitration experience encompasses different geographies, applicable laws, seats and sectors, including joint ventures, renewable energy, oil and gas, construction, life sciences, technology and project finance. He has frequently co-counselled efficiently and effectively with legal practitioners from countries around the world.

Having drafted several New York Convention compliant awards, Paul accepts appointments as an arbitrator. He is also an accomplished litigator at first instance and on appeal, again across a range of sectors. Please see below for further details.

Paul deploys his expertise to help clients to mitigate political risk when structuring transactions and/or to advise clients on how best to draft contracts to ensure enforcement of their contractually agreed allocation of risk. He is adept at dispute avoidance, settlement and mediation.

Paul is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Arbitrators. He holds an LLM in International Dispute Resolution, speaking at industry events and lecturing regularly.

Legal Services


Recent Work

Representative matters are set out below.  Further examples and details can be provided upon request:

Commercial Arbitration

  • LCIA Arbitration: c.$2.8 billion arbitration representing Ziraat Bankası A.S. over claims arising from joint venture shareholder documentation controlling the largest telecommunications company in Türkiye, Turkcell İletişim.
  • SAC Arbitration: c.€6 million dispute arising from contractual obligations pertaining to ammonium nitrate shipments.
  • LCIA Arbitration: Claims totalling c.$112 million against a Latin American oil exploration subsidiary through joint venture documentation.
  • ICC Arbitration: $100+ million dispute involving Swiss and Russian entities in the coal and coal transportation sectors.
  • LCIA Arbitration: Ensuring client’s protection in a c.$1.5 billion dollar arbitration involving client’s borrower arising from non-compliance with a previous award.
  • ICC Arbitration: c.$160 million dispute relating to a construction project in the Middle East.
  • ICC arbitration: c.£4 million pound dispute for a renewables company operating in South East Asia.
  • BVI Court: Resisting enforcement of an ICC award, including appeals to the Eastern Caribbean Court of Appeal and the Privy Council.
  • English Court: Advising on recognition and enforcement of an UNCITRAL award.
  • Advising on bespoke arbitration agreements on large projects and transactions that could give rise to multi-party arbitrations.
  • Advising on various pre-arbitration aspects, including:
    • Asset location and award enforceability
    • Pre-conditions in multi-tiered arbitration agreements
    • Substantive merits
    • Claim admissibility
    • Tribunal jurisdiction
    • Expedition of Tribunal appointment
    • Emergency arbitrator appointment
    • Interim court relief pending Tribunal appointment

Investment Arbitration

  • Karkey v Pakistan (CL-2018-000421): Resisting recognition of a c.$900 million ICSID award derived from a power-related investment obtained through corruption.
  • Advising on ad hoc investment treaty arbitration claims by investors relating to unlawful expropriation of mining licences, discriminatory treatment and denial of justice.
  • Advising on ICSID investment treaty arbitration claims by investors relating to unlawful expropriation of retail assets, unfair and unequitable treatment and full protection and security.
  • Advising on the structuring of several transactions and projects to mitigate political risk and/or avail investors, sponsors or lenders of investment treaty protections (e.g. an LNG project in Papua New Guinea).
  • Applications for funding and/or insurance in relation to investment arbitrations.
  • Advising on various pre-arbitration aspects, including:
    • Asset location and award enforceability
    • Pre-conditions in multi-tiered arbitration agreements
    • Substantive merits
    • Claim admissibility
    • Tribunal jurisdiction
    • Sovereign immunity

As Arbitrator

  • 4 CIArb awards
  • 2 awards rendered under the Commercial Rent (Coronavirus) Act 2022
  • 11 ABTA awards
  • Extensive experience of procedural matters, including:
    • Joinder
    • Consolidation
    • Party non-participation
    • Claim admissibility issues
    • Evidence admissibility issues.

Recent Speaking Engagements

Recent representative speaking engagements include:

  • ‘International Arbitration in Ghana: Trends and Opportunities’, CIArb London Branch, May 2023
  • ‘Dissenting Opinions in Arbitration Awards’, Hungarian Arbitration Association, Budapest, May 2023
  • ‘Sovereign Immunity: Practical Issues’, English Law Day, Istanbul, March 2023
  • ‘Technology in Arbitration’, CIArb European Branch, Paris, February 2023
  • ‘Energy and Extraction: Current Trends and Likely Developments’, CIArb London Branch, January 2023
  • ‘Current Trends in African Arbitration’, ICC Africa Conference, June 2022
  • ‘Business and Human Rights’, Royal Holloway Rights and Freedoms Conference, April 2022

Paul volunteers at legal clinics and as arbitrator at several moots, including the Vis Moot.


Recent Work

  • Competition Appeal Tribunal: Margin squeeze claim against dominant market incumbents totalling c.£10+ million (first order and second order effects).
  • Representing Visa Inc defending competition claims relating to multi-lateral interchange fees. Reported cases include –
    • Arcadia and others v Visa [2014] EWHC 4064: successful summary judgment on limitation issues
    • Arcadia and others v Visa [2015] EWCA Civ 883: Successful appeal on limitation issues.
  • Advising Visa Inc on competition investigations, decisions and policies and the UK and EU level, as well as other aspects of the MIF litigation.
  • Competition audit for Coca Cola’s UK operations.
  • Previously seconded to RBS to advise on certain markets and market definitions.
  • Paul spent six months on secondment in Brussels, focusing on EU competition disputes, merger clearances and competition policy.

Dispute Resolution

Recent Work

Representative matters are set out below.  Further examples and details can be provided upon request:

  • Court of Appeal: Issues of legal privilege and access to justice ([2022] EWCA Civ 1103).
  • High Court: Claims against individuals in fraud, contract and equity totalling c.£15 million; related negotiations and interim applications.
  • London Circuit Commercial Court: Claims against individuals in contract, fraud, deceit and restitution totalling c.£3 million [2021] EWHC 3409 (Comm); related injunctive relief and costs proceedings.
  • High Court: Claims and counterclaims relating to unpaid personal and inter-group loans (BL-2019-000160).
  • High Court: Success in a High Court trial over ownership of a London property for an Emirati billionaire (Alya’a Ebrahim Naser El Theeb v Alya’a Ebrahim Abdallah Alkaz (unreported)).
  • High Court: Defending judgment enforcement proceedings in respect of a charging order ([2011] EWHC 57).
  • Appeal: Appeal relating to the potential sale of a yacht to satisfy a judgment debt ([2011] EWHC 3473).
  • Advising regularly on contractual and regulatory risks and issues – e.g. post-transaction warranties.
  • Advising regularly on pre-action correspondence and settlement, recently for instance in a case involving real estate investment funds and another involving carbon capture companies.

Injunctions, Emergency Court Relief & Search Orders

Recent Work

  • Obtained search orders to prevent employees deploying intellectual property against former employers (MSCI Inc v Axioma Inc (sealed file)).
  • Various freezing order applications, some leading to undertakings in lieu.
  • Advising on other injunction applications include evidence preservation, Norwich Pharmacal and negative injunctions preventing certain transactions.

Insolvency & Corporate Recovery

Recent Work

  • Representing the administrators of an insolvent Respondent in an ICC arbitration in the green transport sector.
  • Representing the co-ordinating committee of junior lenders in the complex c.$1.6 billion restructuring of General Healthcare Group.
  • Resisting a receiver application in the BVI High Court over assets to be used to pay an arbitration award debt.
  • Advising disenfranchised subordinated creditors in a multi-jurisdictional restructuring in the context of a COMI shift.

International Litigation, Mediation & ADR

Recent Work

  • Advising on English law issues in ongoing Turkish proceedings in respect of unpaid debts arising from a multi-million dollar bond issuance.
  • Advising on resisting the recognition and enforcement of a Dubai court judgment in London.
  • LCIA claims regarding letters of credit and shipment of scrap metal from Venezuela to Türkiye.
  • Advising on seizure and repatriation of taxpayer assets expropriated by former ministers of a Central Asian government.
  • Advising on location, seizure and repatriation of bank deposit holder monies expropriated by former bankers and politicians in an Eastern European country.
  • Advising on substantive, regulatory and privilege aspects of prospective simultaneous proceedings in England and Tanzania.
  • Advising on issues arising from termination of a pan-African consultancy services agreement.
  • Several mediations, bilateral and multilateral negotiations to settle disputes early and maintain good commercial relationships.

Technology Dispute Resolution

Recent Work

  • Claims against an international computer hardware provider for fraudulent misrepresentation, negligence and breaches of contract.
  • Settling claims between several NHS trusts and outsourced software providers over service failures, contractual breaches and issues relating to tender and procurement.
  • Settling claims over licensing and royalties arising from the operation of an immersive 3D theatre.
  • Claims against international software companies involving intellectual property, consulting, deceit, breach of contract and misrepresentation.
  • Paul has published and regularly speaks on the use of technology in international arbitration, including related topics such as artificial intelligence (AI) and diversity.



Clean Energy, Waste & Sustainability


  • ICC arbitration in the solar sector, relating to polysilicon rod production and related matters.
  • Advising a renewables technology company on contractual repudiation issues, commencing an ICC arbitration seated in Singapore and related commercial negotiations.

Financial Services


  • Defended Rabobank during investigations into its LIBOR submissions across several jurisdictions.
  • Defended a large bank following inquiries by regulators concerning possible market abuse and competition issues arising from certain bond trading.
  • As arbitrator, deciding several disputes relating to unpaid loans.
  • Previously seconded to RBS to advise on certain markets and market definitions.
  • Advising on issues arising from international sanctions, including against Iran (US sanctions versus the EU Blocking Regulation), Russia and Sudan.

Infrastructure & Major Projects


  • Defended claims against a Qatari state-owned entity owner by a turnkey contractor in an ICC arbitration totalling c.$160 million relating to a plant construction.
  • Advising on LCIA claims worth over $100 million relating to a oil exploration project in Latin America.
  • Advising on issues arising from ongoing projects, including change order claims, contractual renegotiations, supply chain difficulties, contractual risk, political risk, conflicts of laws and international sanctions.

Life Sciences


  • Defended a small research company in London seated LCIA proceedings against a large pharmaceutical company trying to restrict its operation in certain markets.
  • Advising a Swiss pharmaceutical company on its expansion into an African jurisdiction.
  • Advising an international pharmaceutical company on various English law issues arising from its UK operations.



  • SAC Arbitration arising from ammonium nitrate shipments.
  • ICC arbitration relating to the transportation of commodities by rail and sea
  • Advising the Republic of Panama in its ITLOS arbitration dispute against the Republic of Guinea-Bissau over the Virginia G.
  • Advising on various aircraft leases and financings.
  • Competition claims in the railway industry against market incumbents.
  • Settlement of claims and counterclaims pertaining to commodity shipments allegedly rendered impossible by force majeure worth c.$2 million.



To contact Paul or for more information…

Call: 0345 340 4218
Mobile: 0789 096 3656
Or email: Send an email


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